科学研究发现 即使是无脑水母也会打盹

阅读:次      发布时间:2018-01-10

Humans are hardly alone in their need for sleep--as any cat owner knows. But what about other, very different animals? 人类绝非需要睡眠的唯一物种,任何一个养猫的人都清楚这一点。不过,对于那些与人类截然不同的其他物种呢? In thinking about this…we wanted to use an evolutionary argument to figure out what is the simplest animal to sleep. Ravi Nath, a graduate student of biology and bioengineering at Caltech. 加州理工学院生物学与生物工程专业的研究生拉维·奈斯表示:“在思考这个问题(其他物种是否需要睡眠)时,我们想要从进化的观点出发,找到需要睡眠的最原始生物。” We decided to approach it from a conservation point of view, how conserved the sleep state is. And looked back into the animal tree and specifically looked at jellyfish, said Claire Bedbrook, also a biology and bioengineering graduate student at Caltech. 同为加州理工学院生物学与生物工程专业的研究生的克莱尔·贝德罗克表示:“我们决定从行为恒定的观点处理这个问题--究竟睡眠有多古老。然后回溯动物种系进化图谱,还专门研究了水母。” Jellyfish have no central nervous system. They do have neurons—their nervous system is a sort of loose set of neurons that control the animal s behavior. There s no control center. 水母没有中枢神经系统。“它们的确拥有神经元,但是它们拥有的是一种控制动物行为的弥散式神经系统。没有控制中枢。” Nath, Bedbrook and the rest of their team worked with a species known as the upside-down jellyfish. 奈斯、贝德罗克和团队中的其他成员一起研究了仙女水母。 Unlike jellyfish that we re probably most used to seeing in the wild, these jellyfish actually rest their bell on the seafloor, or in our case the tank bottom, and they pulse in place. These habits made this jellyfish easy to observe. “与我们在野外常见的水母不同,这种水母其实会把伞膜搭在海底(在我们研究中是搭在水槽底部),并就地涌动。”该水母的这些习性令其易于观察。

科学研究发现 即使是无脑水母也会打盹

The researchers recorded the animals behavior during the day and at night, to see if these jellyfish met the scientific criteria for sleep. 研究人员日夜记录此水母的行为,进而观察它们是否达到了科学睡眠的标准。 Those three behavioral criteria are, first, that the animal goes through a period of quiescence where they are less active. The second is that during this quiescent state, the animals are not as responsive to environmental stimulus. And the third is that this quiescent state is actually necessary for the animal s well-being and survival. “科学睡眠的三种行为标准如下,第一,动物会经历一段活动减少的静止期。第二,静止状态期间,动物对环境刺激的反应性降低。第三,这种静止状态实际上对动物的健康和生存来讲是很有必要的。” The observations revealed that these jellyfish do in fact sleep. That s a big deal because for scientists there was this assumption in the community that you needed to have a certain level of complexity -- namely a central nervous system -- to actually sleep. 观察结果显示,该水母的确会睡眠。这可是个大发现,因为对科学家来讲,“科学界中存在这样一种假设,即必需要进化到拥有一定程度的复杂性(如中枢神经系统)才能够睡眠。” So what does this study tell us about why animals sleep, and how sleep evolved? Bedbrook says that although more work needs to be done, they have some ideas. 那么,关于动物因何睡眠以及睡眠是如何发展的这两个问题,该研究是如何回答的呢?贝德罗克表示,虽然仍需进一步研究,但是他们已经有一些想法了。 One hypothesis that we really like is that any animal that has neurons will have a sleep state, and that sleep might be an intrinsic property of neurons. “其中有一种假设我们都很欣赏,即任何拥有神经元的动物均会出现睡眠状态,同时睡眠或许是神经元固有的性质。” Nath agrees. So neurons have a huge metabolic cost, and so maybe this period of sleep is a period of consolidated energy conservation that has evolved with neurons essentially. 奈斯对此表示认同。“由于神经元需要消耗大量新陈代谢的能量,因此或许这段睡眠时期,本质上是与神经元共同进化的一段统一的能量节约时期。” So nerves might be keeping you up at night—but having nerves is what s probably putting you to sleep. 因此,虽然神经紧张也许令你夜晚无法入眠,但正是因为拥有神经,你才能够睡觉。

来源:可可英语 http://www.kekenet.com/read/201711/533310.shtml
单词complexity 联想记忆:
com全部+plex重叠+ity表名词,指具备某种性质→复杂性  
单词hypothesis 联想记忆:
hypo在…下面,thesis(n 论题;论文)-论题的背后-假设  
单词intrinsic 联想记忆:
intr=intro向内,insic=inside(adv 在里面)一内在的;本质的  
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